Cast steels are kinds of steel used for casting, is a kind of casting alloy. Cast steel is a way of industrial production of parts, and is also widely used. Cast steel can be divided into different types according to different carbon content. Carbon cast steel can be divided into: low carbon cast steel with C ≤ 0.20%; medium carbon steel with c0.2-0.5%; high carbon steel with C ≥ 0.5%. Cast steel can be divided into carbon cast steel and alloy cast steel according to chemical composition. Alloy steel is divided into low alloy steel and high alloy steel according to the content of alloy elements. The following analysis is the characteristics of three different types of cast steels: cast low alloy steel, cast special steel and cast carbon steel.
1. Cast low alloy steel: cast steel containing manganese, chromium, copper and other alloy elements. The total amount of alloying elements is generally less than 5%, which has great impact toughness and can obtain better mechanical properties through heat treatment. Compared with carbon steel, cast low alloy steel has better service performance, can reduce the quality of parts and improve the service life.
2. Casting special steel: the alloy cast steel, which is made to meet the special needs, has a wide variety, usually contains one or more high-volume alloy elements, in order to obtain some special properties. For example, the high manganese steel containing 11% – 14% manganese can withstand impact wear, and is mostly used for wear-resistant parts of mining machinery and engineering machinery; various stainless steels with chromium or chromium nickel as the main alloy elements are used for parts working under corrosive or high temperature conditions above 650 ℃, such as valve bodies, pumps, containers for chemical industry or turbine casings for large capacity power plants.
3. Cast carbon steel: cast steels with carbon as the main alloy element and a small amount of other elements. Low carbon steel with carbon content less than 0.2%, medium carbon steel with carbon content between 0.2% and 0.5%, and high carbon steel with carbon content more than 0.5%. With the increase of carbon content, the strength and hardness of cast carbon steel increase. Cast carbon steel has high strength, plasticity and toughness, and low cost. It is used in heavy machinery to manufacture parts that bear large load, such as rolling mill frame, hydraulic press base, etc.; it is used in railway vehicles to manufacture parts that bear large force and impact, such as bolster, side frame, wheel and coupler, etc.
The carbon content and alloy content determine the classification and characteristics of steel casting, and the range of use of different steel casting is also different, so it is very helpful for the correct selection of steel casting.
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