What materials are used for gearbox housing?

The material of gearbox housing should have enough strength and good casting performance, and low cost. The common material of medium and small transmission case is pressure casting aluminium alloy with properties not less than tensile strength_b of 200 MPa.
The chemical composition of the British standard BS 1490:1988 LM2 die-cast aluminium alloy is similar to that of the Japanese standard JIS H5302:2000 ADC12. Only the chemical composition of the elements listed in following Table is slightly different, and the other elements are the same. ADC12 has been widely used in China.
Differences in Elemental Chemical Constituents between LM2 and ADC12
Iron (%) copper (%) zinc (%)
LM2 < 1.0 0.7-2.5 < 1.0
ADC12 <1.3 1.5~3.5 <2.0
ADC12 aluminium alloy belongs to Al-Si-Cu alloys. The series of alloys have the casting properties of ADC10, ADC12, ADC10 and good pressure resistance. They are suitable for manufacturing large-scale die castings. Its mechanical properties and cutting performance are good, but its corrosion resistance is slightly poor. Compared with ADC10, ADC12 contains more Si, the former 9.6%-12.0% and the latter 7.5%-9.5%. The composition of the former is about eutectic point, and the alloy has the best fluidity, so it is suitable for die casting complex castings with high strength, good pressure resistance and low hot brittleness.
In addition, there is ADC14 alloy, compared with ADC12, the alloy has poor heat cracking resistance, pressure leakage resistance and cutting performance.
With ADC12 die-casting aluminium alloy, the shell wall thickness can be reduced to 2-3 mm, the surface roughness can reach Ra6.3 um, and the machining allowance can be reduced to about 1 mm. Aluminum alloy shell die casting has high productivity and easy machining.
Therefore, LM2 or ADC12 die-cast aluminium alloy is selected as gearbox housing material.

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